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          澳彩网

          Where is the productivity benefit in R&D tax credits?

          新的研究为收益要求的产业支撑创新的反思

          作为参数愤怒了澳大利亚政府削减科研经费 - 当前和酝酿 - 至少有研究机构和大学的一些好消息。 

          新 研究, examining the impact of investment in research and innovation on Australian market sector productivity, reveals the government gets more bang for its buck from investing public money in research agencies and universities than from the almost A$2 billion in R&D tax concessions it presently provides to industry.

          事实上,该报告的作者 -  凯文·福克斯,经济学教授和主任 中心应用经济研究​at UNSW Business School,​​ along with postdoctoral research fellow Amani​ Elnasri – ​find no evidence of any productivity benefit from indirect public support, such as R&D tax concessions for the business enterprise sector, nor from support for civil sector or defence R&D.​​​

          也许勇敢,fox've提出了他的发现为“多行业论坛全国各地”。我发现两个不同的反应。

          “One is that industry relies on these R&D tax credits,” Fox says. This line of argument brands his evidence as ‘too flimsy’ and claims that by ‘saying [credits] don't matter and the government could remove them … this is going to put us out of business and you should just shut up’.

          “Another view is: ‘I don't know what these people are complaining about, we never viewed the R&D tax credit as being core to our business, we just treat it as an end-of-financial-year bonus.’ That was probably not what the government wants to hear, though it may suspect that's what many companies view the R&D tax credit as,” Fox says.

          历届政府都重新设计了税收抵免计划,表明该系统是被rorted关注。 

          Says Fox: “Talking with management consultants, they give me examples of various companies. Such as a mining company that built an access road and called it R&D, so it could claim a tax credit for that.

          “Universities and research agencies such as the CSIRO have to justify how they use public funding, such as through peer review of research grant applications. Often with universities it's block grant funding based on documented past research performance. Whereas with the business R&D tax concession, while there are rules and the possibility of an audit, the companies are allowed to self-declare activities as R&D.”

          新的政策目标

          狐狸希望研究结果可能有助于重新考虑支持政府的工作方式的行业。

          “I can give many reasons why public spending on the R&D tax concession may actually lower private sector productivity,” he says. “And that includes things such as that it allows small firms to exist. And so new firms come into the industry and they typically have lower productivity than incumbents. So if you look at overall productivity, it will go down.

          “But you actually want these new entrants coming in because they may be more productive, or simply more profitable, than the incumbents in the future. They bring in new products, services and ideas that can enhance welfare, and this is all good. So, there are reasons I can give why the R&D tax concession may still be beneficial, but if your policy goal is just to raise productivity, then that may not be the most effective way of doing it.

          “Rather than spending A$2 billion a year on R&D tax credits, if raising productivity is the policy goal then it may be better to look at funding schemes that could strengthen the connections between business and universities.”

          'Our research asks for a better response from industry regarding why the R&D tax concession should be preferred to other types of industry support'

          凯文·福克斯

          英国的研究和自身利益

          他们的狐狸并在2012年开始elnasri研究,当时吉拉德政府的保障澳大利亚未来计划的一部分。该文件是由澳大利亚议会据悉院校,它被要求在科学,研究和技术的起重澳大利亚的生产力的作用的报告项目的一个组成部分。 

          来自英国的一项研究福克斯学分动机,所进行的全球金融危机后,当英国政府一直在寻找在财政紧缩和有它的措施着眼于砍掉了科学预算。 

          “That 研究 is credited with helping to save the UK science budget by providing evidence that shows what matters for our future prosperity is productivity, and if you cut the R&D budget for science you're killing off our future prosperity,” Fox says.

          狐狸和elnasri的工作也发挥到一个持续的政策应力之间分配资金有针对性的应用研究 - 也就是说,我们已经知道进一步检查 - 纯净的研究,而不是做出新的发现可能。 

          这样是不是有点方便的学者:如狐狸和elnasri应回落在大学的一面呢?

          福克斯说:“你说得对,这整个一所大学来[和说:'停止给钱的公司,它给我们的问题,你说有一个莫非位既得利益的存在。但同去的其他方式。至少我有统计证据背上了我的论点其中,而行业通常说,“你不明白”。

          “At a minimum, our research asks for a better response from industry regarding why the R&D tax concession should be preferred to other types of industry support."         

          创新已经枯竭?

          澳大利亚的生产力表现放缓福克斯笔记“随着黄金时代我们不得不从中期到90年代末到21世纪初相比,”。

          工业化国家的其他俱乐部都在同一条船上,从而引发全球性辩论是否创新终于干涸。是否所有的四大发明而做出的,从这里它只是修修补补周围的边缘?抑或是西方的“今天的经济缺乏创新精神”,诺贝尔经济奖获得者埃德蒙·菲尔普斯认为呢?狐狸并非如此危言耸听。

          “我们正在重新审视,在70年代末和80年代初当同样的事情发生月发生的讨论,”福克斯说。 “生产率增长干涸,人们赛义德,“好吧,这是什么?这是战后的繁荣生产力,现在我们只是将不得不指望因此,在生活水平较低的生产率增长和低增长? 

          “[当时]美国经济和其他经济体从滞胀的痛苦是 - 他们有高失业率,高通胀率和经济基本上是停滞不前。没有公司在新的创新活动由于不确定性从经济环境带来的投资,经济回升当他们投资客场我们Wents。投资高科技股票的收益出现了,最后所有的然后有从生产效率。“ 

          But since the global financial crisis of 2008, many firms appear cautious and are not investing in R&D as they have in the past.

          “It appears that a lot of firms are carrying a lot of cash, which is unusual. The ABC reported earlier this year that cash balance holdings of Australian firms were now A$111 billion. That’s a lot of money lying around, money that would previously have been put to productive use – investing in R&D, investing in new assets, and so on. That seems to have stalled due to the uncertain business environment,” Fox says.

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